Let us consider a special type of a binary search tree, called a cartesian tree. Recall that a binary search tree is a rooted ordered binary tree, such that for its every node x the following condition is satisfied: each node in its left subtree has the key less then the key of x, and each node in its right subtree has the key greater then the key of x.
That is, if we denote left subtree of the node x by L(x), its right subtree by R(x) and its key by kx then for each node x we have
- if y ∈ L(x) then ky < kx
- if z ∈ R(x) then kz > kx
The binary search tree is called cartesian if its every node x in addition to the main key kx also has an auxiliary key that we will denote by ax, and for these keys the heap condition is satisfied, that is
- if y is the parent of x then ay < ax
Thus a cartesian tree is a binary rooted ordered tree, such that each of its nodes has a pair of two keys (k, a) and three conditions described are satisfied.
Given a set of pairs, construct a cartesian tree out of them, or detect that it is not possible.